William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “‘Muerto por Unos Desconocidos (Killed by people Unknown)’:…
… Mob Violence against African Americans and Mexican Americans, ” in Beyond monochrome: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender into the U.S. Southern and Southwest, ed. Stephanie Cole and Allison Parker (College facility, 2004), 35–74; William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “A Dangerous Experiment: The Lynching of Rafael Benavides, ” New Mexico Historical Review, 80 (summer time 2005), 265–92. For the Texas research study, see Nicholas Villaneuva Jr., “‘Sincerely Yours for Dignified Manhood’: Lynching, Violence, and United states Manhood during the first several years of the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1914, ” Journal regarding the western, 49 (cold temperatures 2010), 41–48. On mob physical violence against “racial other people” within the West, see, as an example, Pfeifer, harsh Justice, 86–88; Pfeifer, Roots of harsh Justice, 46–50; and Scott Zesch, The Chinatown War: Chinese Los Angeles therefore the Massacre of 1871 (nyc, 2012). Regarding the lynching of 29 Sicilians, another ethnic team regarded as racially various into the postbellum Southern, see Clive Webb, “The Lynching of Sicilian Immigrants into the United states South, 1886–1910, ” United states Nineteenth Century History, 3 (springtime 2002), 45–76. From the lynching of Sicilians in Colorado, see Stephen J. Leonard, Lynching in Colorado, 1859–1919 (Boulder, 2002), 135–42.
Christopher Waldrep, the numerous Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in the us (ny, 2002); Christopher Waldrep, ed., Lynching in the us: a past history in papers (nyc, 2006); Christopher Waldrep, African People in the us Confront Lynching: techniques of opposition through the Civil War into the Civil Rights period (Lanham, 2008); William D. Carrigan and Christopher Waldrep, eds., Swift to Wrath: Lynching in Global Historical attitude (Charlottesville, 2013). Jonathan Markowitz, Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory (Minneapolis, 2004), xxxi. On lynching when you look at the context of Jim Crow tradition, see Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The community of Segregation when you look at the Southern, 1890–1940 (nyc, 1998), 199–238. The Properties of Violence: Claims to Ownership in Representations of Lynching (Jackson, 2012) for analyses of literary and visual representations of lynching from the late nineteenth through the mid-twentieth centuries, see Jacqueline Goldsby, A Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American Life and Literature (Chicago, 2006); and Sandy Alexandre. For narratives of southern and vigilantism that is western lynching, see Lisa Arellano, Vigilantes and Lynch Mobs: Narratives of Community and country (Philadelphia, 2012). For lynching into the context regarding the Protestant tradition regarding the postbellum American South, see Donald G. Mathews, “The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice: Lynching within the United states South, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 62 (Winter–Spring 2008), 27–70. Amy Louise Wood, Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890–1940 (Chapel Hill, 2009), 14. Fury, dir. Fritz Lang ( mgm, 1936); The Ox-Bow Incident, dir. William Wellman (Twentieth Century Fox, 1943). On lynching within the people tradition of new york’s reduced Piedmont, see Bruce E. Baker, “North Carolina Lynching Ballads, ” in less than Sentence of Death, ed. Brundage, 219–46. On lynching in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century black colored movie theater, see Koritha Mitchell, coping with Lynching: African American Lynching has, Efficiency, and Citizenship, 1890–1930 (Urbana, 2012). Sherrilyn A. Ifill, regarding the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching when you look at the Twenty-First Century (Boston, 2007). For a residential district research that explored the legacy that is lengthy of inspired lynchings in Marion, Indiana, in 1931, see James H. Madison, Lynching into the Heartland: Race and Memory in the usa (ny, 2001). For a synopsis of lynching in US culture, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, American Lynching ( New Haven, 2012). The end of American Lynching (New Brunswick, 2012) for the argument that an end-of-lynching discourse continues to shape and distort discussion of American mob violence, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy.
Crystal Feimster, Southern Horrors: ladies therefore the Politics of Rape and Lynching (Cambridge, Mass., 2009). On African US women’s relationship to lynching, see Evelyn M. Simien, ed., Gender and Lynching: The Politics of Memory (New York, 2011). For instance studies of lynchings of African US ladies in Georgia, Oklahoma, and sc, see Julie Buckner Armstrong, Mary Turner as well as the Memory of Lynching (Athens, Ga., 2011); and Maria DeLongoria, “‘Stranger Fruit’: The Lynching of Black ladies, The situations of Rosa Jefferson and Marie Scott” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Missouri–Columbia, 2006). For a journalistic remedy for the lynching of two African American partners in Walton County, Georgia, in 1946, see Laura Wexler, Fire in a Canebrake: the very last Mass Lynching in the usa (ny, 2003). In the lynching of females and kids within the West, see Helen McLure, “‘I Suppose you imagine Strange the Murder of females and Children’: The US society of Collective Violence, 1675–1930” (Ph.D. Diss., Southern Methodist University, 2009). For a summary of female lynching victims, see Kerry Segrave, Lynchings of females in the usa: The cases that are recorded 1851–1946 (Jefferson, 2010). Claude A. Clegg III, distressed Ground: an account of Murder, Lynching, and Reckoning into the brand New Southern (Urbana, 2010); Terrence Finnegan, A Deed So Accursed: Lynching in Mississippi and sc, 1881–1940 (Charlottesville, 2013). On Mississippi’s respected record of racial mob physical violence, see Julius E. Thompson, Lynchings in Mississippi: a brief history, 1865–1965 (Jefferson, 2007). This Mob Will Surely Take My Life: Lynching in the Carolinas, 1871–1947 (London, 2008); and J. Timothy Cole, The Forest City Lynching of 1900: Populism, Racism, and White Supremacy in Rutherford County, North Carolina (Jefferson, 2003) on lynching in the Carolinas, see Bruce E. Baker.
Kidada E. Williams, They Left Great markings on Me: African US Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I ( New York, 2012). On African American reactions to mob physical physical violence, see Karlos Hill, “Resisting Lynching: Ebony Grassroots reactions to Lynching within the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas, 1882–1938” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Illinois, 2009).
Current scholarship, particularly that centered on civil legal rights activism, has started to explore African American reactions to racial terror during the level that is local.
On black colored reactions to terror that is racial fin-de-siecle Florida as well as in 1960s and 1970s Alabama and Mississippi, respectively, see Paul Ortiz, Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden reputation for Ebony Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction towards the Bloody Election of 1920 (Berkeley, 2006); Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Ebony energy in Alabama’s Ebony Belt (ny, 2010); and Akinyele Omowale Umoja, We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance into the Mississippi Freedom Movement (nyc, 2013). Ifill, In The Courthouse Lawn, xix–xx. For the Senate apology, see Congressional Record, 109 Cong., 1 sess., June 13, 2005, p. S6364–88. For news protection of this U.S. Senate apology see, for instance, Wendy Koch, “U.S. Senate Moves to Apologize for Injustice, ” usa Today, June 13, 2005; and Martin C. Evans, “An Apology for Old as a type of Terror: Senate Expects to Vote Tomorrow on Resolution regarding Its Failure to assist End Practice of Lynching, ” Newsday, June 12, 2005, p. A34. On efforts to memorialize lynchings in Duluth, Minnesota, in 1920 plus in cost, Utah, in 1925, respectively, see Dora Apel, “Memorialization as well as its Discontents: America’s First Lynching Memorial, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 61 (Winter–Spring 2008); and Kimberley Mangun and Larry R. Gerlach, “Making Utah History: Press Coverage of the Robert Marshall Lynching, June 1925, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie, ed. Pfeifer, 143–47. The chains: In Montgomery, Ala., a Move to Remember Slavery Exactly Where It Happened, ” New York Times, http://camsloveaholics.com/xhamsterlive-review Dec. 10, 2013, pp on an effort by Bryan Stevenson and the Equal Justice Initiative to erect memorials at lynching sites around the South, see Campbell Robertson, “Before the Battles and the protests. 17–18.